Powder Synthesis with APPtec®

Unparalleled Technology for Tailored Particle Design

APPtec® stands for Advanced Pulse Powder technology and is a revolutionary thermal technique used in manufacturing functional powder materials with exceptional properties. The designation “APP” is also indicative of technology that is “tailored to the application concerned”: Ultimately, this new powder technology makes it possible to create particles with specific performance properties, which are tailored to the individual application, thanks to a groundbreaking advancement in spray calcination. The particle structure, composition, or surface properties of your powder can be precisely adapted according to the requirements of their intended application. What's more, various process options such as drying, calcination, particle formation, and particle coating can be efficiently combined in an APPtec® system. This innovative spray calcination technique can be applied in every industrial sector in order to develop novel particle systems for high-performance applications, using an economical, continuous process.

Benefit from the advantages of powder synthesis with APPtec®!


Spray Calcination in a Pulsating Hot Gas Flow

A pulsating hot gas flow is generated in a specially designed combustion chamber in which the particles are formed and treated. Special thermodynamic conditions ensure the formation of high-performance powders with exceptional properties. You can precisely adjust the frequency, amplitude, process temperature, and flow speed of the pulsating gas flow. The ProAPP synthesis reactor is designed so that only the gas flow pulsates in a strictly controlled manner. The reactor itself does not pulsate and is secure.

For generating particles, raw material solutions, suspensions, or even solids are finely atomized and drawn into the pulsating gas flow where they are heated up and consolidated into particles. This leads to chemical and mineralogical reactions. In a final step, the particles are cooled down. Thanks to the exceptional thermodynamic conditions, the process firstly enables the exact configuration of particles with tailor-made property combinations for individual applications. The process temperature, retention time, frequency, and amplitude of the pulsating hot gas flow determine the particle properties required.

Our solution for tailored particle design.


Extremely Fast Phase Response for the Formation of Special Crystal Structures

The APPtec® spray calcination technique exerts an active influence on the speed of heat transfer when the frequency and amplitude of the pulsating hot gas flow are set. With increasing pulsation intensity, the layer of air surrounding the particles – which forms in the gas flow and would usually impede heat transfer when flow is consistent – can be more or less canceled out. As a result, the speed of heat transfer from gas to particle can be up to five times higher. Consequently, the particles heat up rapidly and are cooled down just as quickly at the end of the reaction. This extremely accelerated particle formation and phase conversion leads to the desired exceptional states of reaction and with it the formation of unique structures.

Our solution for products with truly unique features.


Diverse Configuration Parameters for Exact Particle Design

The novel powder technology allows the gas flow to be precisely configured and therefore offers a wide parameter range. This enables targeted treatment of the required materials. In the first instance, an active influence can be exerted on the speed of heat transfer when the frequency and amplitude of the pulsating hot gas flow are set. As well as the resulting potential influence on the temperature-retention time regime, the technique also enables heating and cooling gradients to be precisely configured for the very first time. This is therefore an important, independent configuration parameter enabling particle properties to be customized. At very high heating speeds, for example, other chemical and mineralogical reactions take place than is the case for low speeds that are close to the state of equilibrium. With accelerated cooling speeds, on the other hand, the crystallinity of the particle structure is reduced, causing lattice defects to increase, which often results in higher activity – the kind sought-after for catalysts, for example.

Our solution for functionalized high-performance powders.


Powder Materials of Exceptional Quality

The fact that APPtec® is able to offer a homogeneous raw material solution configured with complete freedom along with extremely homogeneous thermal treatment results in an exceptional powder quality. Two factors make this possible – firstly, an ideal distribution of elements in the solution, and secondly, an identical temperature-retention time treatment. The first helps ensure that, as far as quality is concerned, homogeneous raw materials are introduced into the pulsating hot gas flow evenly. To that end, the required elements can be in almost any combination, provided that they are always evenly distributed, as this is an essential requirement for achieving the most homogeneous starting materials possible. The second factor results from the special thermodynamic conditions: Owing to the high degree of turbulence, pulsating gas flows do not demonstrate the temperature and speed gradients that would typically be found in continuous gas flows. As a result, all particles undergo the same thermal treatment.

Our solution for homogeneous powder materials of outstanding quality.


Strictly Controllable Material Temperature Without Hotspots

The particle size of high-performance powder materials is often particularly fine or even nanoscale. A persistent consequence of this is unwanted agglomeration in the powder form, which is due entirely to the high surface bonding forces. High-performance powder systems, however, only show their special properties when dispersed, in most cases, when integrated in an application matrix or as a coating on a carrier material.

When the powder is transferred to the application matrix, the particles not only have to be distributed uniformly, but also often have to be dispersed. If the powders are only lightly agglomerated (physical surface bonds), this is generally what happens. But in the case of hard aggregations (checmical bonds), this is virtually impossible.

Hard aggregation is generally caused by the process temperature being too high during thermal treatment, typically at the stage of flame pyrolysis or the plasma reactor technique, or alternatively, as a hotspot, such as in rotary kilns. These very high temperatures give rise to the formation of a partial melting phase. If particles in the gas flow now collide, which is generally unavoidable, these particles stick right to this partial melting phase. During cooling, a hard chemical bond forms from the melting phase – the so-called hard aggregation.

With APPtec®, this common problem of aggregation in thermal processes does not occur. The result of this is a homogeneous temperature field, which can be precisely configured without hotspots being present. Particles are therefore formed and treated below the critical partial melting phase formation. This produces particularly homogeneous powders without hard aggregates.

Our solution for application-specific particle design with maximum performance.


Various Process Options Combined in a Single Step

With APPtec®, you profit from maximum efficiency. For example, various process options such as thermal treatment, coating, activation, or drying can be applied as individual processes or combined into a single process step.

Our solution for economical processes in powder manufacturing.


No Scale-Up – Straight to Production

All powder manufacturing processes with APPtec® can be scaled to suit each specific customer. Based on years of experience, test results can be precisely transferred to technical production without the need for long scale-up processes. This saves time and money. We can provide you with various system sizes of our APPtec® ProAPP pulsation reactor for the product development stage, as well as for the contract manufacturing of your powders on a multi-ton scale.

Our solution to get you to market quickly.


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